Essay on Crimes and Punishments cover

Essay on Crimes and Punishments

Voltaire (1694-1778)

1. Introduction
2. Preface by the Translator of M.D. Voltaire's Commentary
3. Chapter I - On the Origin of Punishments
4. Chapter II - On the Right to Punish
5. Chapter III - Consequences of the foregoing principles
6. Chapter IV - Of the Interpretation of Laws
7. Chapter V - Of the Obscurity of Laws
8. Chapter VI - Of the Proportion between Crimes and Punishments
9. Chapter VII - Of Estimating the Degree of Crimes
10. Chapter VIII - Of the Division of Crimes
11. Chapter IX - Of Honour
12. Chapter X - Of Duelling
13. Chapter XI - Of Crimes which Disturb Public Tranquillity
14. Chapter XII - Of the Intent of Punishments
15. Chapter XIII - Of the Credibility of Witnesses
16. Chapter XIV - Of Evidence and the Proofs of a Crime, and of the Form of Judgment
17. Chapter XV - Of Secret Accusation
18. Chapter XVI - Of Torture
19. Chapter XVII - Of Pecuniary Punishments
20. Chapter XVIII - Of Oaths
21. Chapter XIX - Of the Advantage of Immediate Punishment
22. Chapter XX - Of Acts of Violence
23. Chapter XXI - Of the Punishment of the Nobles
24. Chapter XXII - Of Robbery
25. Chapter XXIII - Of Infamy considered as a Punishment
26. Chapter XXIV - Of Idleness
27. Chapter XXV - Of Banishment and Confiscation
28. Chapter XXVI - Of the Spirit of Family in States
29. Chapter XXVII - Of the Mildness of Punishments
30. Chapter XXVIII - Of the Punishment of Death
31. Chapter XXIX - Of Imprisonment
32. Chapter XXX - Of Prosecution and Prescription
33. Chapter XXXI - Of Crimes of Difficult Proof
34. Chapter XXXII - Of Suicide
35. Chapter XXXIII - Of Smuggling
36. Chapter XXXIV - Of Bankrupts
37. Chapter XXXV - Of Sanctuaries
38. Chapter XXXVI - Of Rewards for Apprehending or Killing Criminals
39. Chapter XXXVII - Of Attempts, Acomplices and Pardon
40. Chapter XXXVIII - Of Suggestive Interrogations
41. Chapter XXXIX - Of a Peculiar Kind of Crimes
42. Chapter XL - Of False Ideas of Utility
43. Chapter XLI - Of the Means of Preventing Crimes
44. Chapter XLII - Of the Sciences
45. Chapter XLIII - Of Magistrates
46. Chapter XLIV - Of Rewards
47. Chapter XLV - Of Education
48. Chapter XLVI - Of Pardons
49. Chapter XLVII - Conclusion
50. Commentary - Chapter I - The Circumstances that Occasioned this Commentary
51. Commentary - Chapter II - Of Punishments
52. Commentary - Chapter III - Of the Punishment of Heretics
53. Commentary - Chapter IV - Of the Extirpation of Heresies
54. Commentary - Chapter V - Of Blasphemy and Profanation
55. Commentary - Chapter VI - Of the Indulgence of the Romans in Matters of Religion
56. Commentary - Chapter VII - Of the Crime of Unlawful Preaching - Story of Anthony
57. Commentary - Chapter VIII - The Story of Simon Morin
58. Commentary - Chapter IX - Of Witches
59. Commentary - Chapter X - Of Capital Punishment
60. Commentary - Chapter XI - Of the Execution of Sentences
61. Commentary - Chapter XII - Of Torture
62. Commentary - Chapter XIII - Of Certain Sanguinary Tribunals
63. Commentary - Chapter XIV - Of the Difference Between Political and Natural Laws
64. Commentary - Chapter XV - Of the Crime of High Treason - Of Titus Oates and of the Death of Augustine de Thou
65. Commentary - Chapter XVI - Of the Revealing of Crimes (Before Commission) by Religious Confession
66. Commentary - Chapter XVII - Of Counterfeiting Money
67. Commentary - Chapter XVIII - Of Domestic Theft
68. Commentary - Chapter XIX - Of Suicide
69. Commentary - Chapter XX - Of a Certain Species of Mutilation
70. Commentary - Chapter XXI - Of the Confiscation Consequent upon all the Crimes which Have Been Mentioned
71. Commentary - Chapter XXII - Of Criminal Proceedings, and of Some Other Forms of Procedure
72. Commentary - Chapter XXIII - The Idea of a Reform Suggested

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    Summary

    Beccaria's treatise On Crimes and Punishments, which condemns disproportionate and irrational penalties in general as well as torture and the death penalty, is said to mark the peak of Enlightenment in Milan. Its translations were widely read by statesmen and policy makers in Britain, America and France. This translation also features the anonymous commentary, attributed to Voltaire.